Judea, c. 3620: Jewish courts were re-established, during the times of the Hasmoneans,.
During the times of Greek rule over the Land of Israel, the Jews didn’t have their own Beis Dins, the courts were Greek, and ruled according to Greek law.
When the Hasmoneans took over control of the land, one of the many things they did, was to establish Jewish courts–Beis Dins, as we will read tomorrow afternoon “Shoftim ve’shotrim titen lecha bechal shearecha–You shall appoint magistrates and officials for your tribes, in all the settlements that the Hashem your G-d is giving you, and they shall govern the people with due justice.”
Source: Megilas Taanis
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